San Marino Population: 32,448

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 History
Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.

 Geography
Landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E
Area: total: 61 sq km
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about one third times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: rugged mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources: building stone
Land use: arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Current Environment Issues: air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
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 People
Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Languages: Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic
Population: 32,448 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.2% (male 2,799/female 2,461)
15-24 years: 10.6% (male 1,749/female 1,679)
25-54 years: 42.8% (male 6,575/female 7,327)
55-64 years: 11.8% (male 1,926/female 1,919)
65 years and over: 18.5% (male 2,680/female 3,333) (2013 est.)
Median age: total: 43.2 years
male: 42.3 years
female: 44 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.93% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 8.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.17 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 8.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 94% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.12 years
male: 80.59 years
female: 85.88 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.48 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2010)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
Government type: republic
Capital: name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence: 3 September 301
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system: civil law system with Italian civil law influences
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Antonella MULARONI and Captain Regent Denis AMICI (for the period 1 April-31 October 2013)

head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)

cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Grand and General Council for a six-month term; election last held on 17 Septermber 2012 (next to be held in March 2013); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Grand and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)

election results: Antonella MULARONI and Denis AMICI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA

note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has nine other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are nine secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino Common Good coalition (San Marino Bene Comune) 50.7% (PDCS 29.5%, PSD 14.3%, AP 6.7%), Entente for the Country coalition (Intesa per Il Paese) 22.3% (PS 12.1%, UPR 8.4%, USDM 1.7%), Active Citizenry coalition (Cittadinanza Attiva) 16.1% (SU 9.1%, Civic 10 6.7%), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 6.3%, For San Marino 2.8%, San Marino 3.0 1.8%; seats by party - San Marino Common Good coalition 35 (PDCS 21, PSD 10, AP 4), Entente for the Country coalition 12 (PS 7, UPR 5), Active Citizenry 9 (SU 5, Civic 10 4), Civic Movement R.E.T.E. 4
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members) note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
Political parties and leaders: San Marino Common Good: Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI] Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Gerardo GIOVAGNOLI] Popular Alliance or AP [Stefano PALMIERI] Entente for the Country: Socialist Party or PS [Augusto CASALI] Union for the Republic or UPR [Giovanni LONFERNINI] Sammarinese Union of Moderates or USDM [Romeo MORRI and Glauco SANSOVINI] Active Citizenship: United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI] Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI] other: Civic Movement R.E.T.E. (Network) [Grazia ZAFFERANI] For San Marino [Emilio DELLA BALDA] San Marino 3.0 [Simone DELLA VALLE]
International organization participation: CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
National symbol(s): three peaks each displaying a tower
National anthem: name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO

note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: 202-223-2418
FAX: 202-223-2748
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
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 Economy
San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, the banking industry and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits. San Marino''s economy has encountered five years of GDP contraction, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downturn, and the sizeable decline in tax revenues have contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government has adopted measures to counter the economic downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. For the first time since 2009, there were signs of improvements in the financial sector in the third quarter of 2012. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. San Marino's Government continues to work with Italy to ratify a financial information exchange agreement, seen by businesses and investors as crucial to strengthening the economic relationship between the two countries.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.371 billion (2012 est.) $1.429 billion (2011 est.) $1.465 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.855 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -4% (2012 est.) -2.5% (2011 est.) -7.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,200 (2009) $41,900 (2007)
Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 21,830 (December 2012)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 34.4%
services: 65.5% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7% (2012) 5.5% (2011)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $667.7 million
expenditures: $694.7 million (2011)
Taxes and other revenues: 36% of GDP (2011)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2012) 3.1% (December 2011)
Exports: $3.827 billion (2011 est.) $2.576 billion (2010 est.)
Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports: $2.551 billion (2011 est.) $2.132 billion (2010 est.)
Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 18,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 192
Cellular Phones in use: 35,500 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 170 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2011)
Broadcast media: state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)
Internet country code: .sm
Internet hosts: 11,015 (2012)
Internet users: 17,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Roadways: total 292 km
country comparison to the world: 205 paved: 292 km (2006)
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of Italy
Military branches: no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,892 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 5,565
females age 16-49: 6,067 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 186
female: 166 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
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