Guatemala Population: 14,373,472

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 History
The Maya civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 200,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees. In January 2012, Guatemala assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

 Geography
No natural harbors on west coast
Location: Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates: 15 30 N, 90 15 W
Area: total: 108,889 sq km
land: 107,159 sq km
water: 1,730 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land Boundaries: total: 1,687 km
border countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km
Coastline: 400 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m note: highest point in Central America
Natural resources: petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 13.78%
permanent crops: 8.68%
other: 77.55% (2011)
Irrigated land: 3,121 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms volcanism: significant volcanic activity in the Sierra Madre range; Santa Maria (elev. 3,772 m) has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Pacaya (elev. 2,552 m), which erupted in May 2010 causing an ashfall on Guatemala City and prompting evacuations, is one of the country's most active volcanoes with frequent eruptions since 1965; other historically active volcanoes include Acatenango, Almolonga, Atitlan, Fuego, and Tacana
Current Environment Issues: deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups: Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census)
Languages: Spanish (official) 60%, Amerindian languages 40% note: there are 23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Population: 14,373,472 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.8% (male 2,691,572/female 2,591,873)
15-24 years: 22.2% (male 1,599,368/female 1,592,830)
25-54 years: 31.8% (male 2,170,071/female 2,402,330)
55-64 years: 5.1% (male 354,266/female 380,414)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 274,254/female 316,494) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 81.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 73.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 8.3 %
potential support ratio: 12.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 20.7 years
male: 20 years
female: 21.3 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.91% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 25.99 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 4.87 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 49% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: GUATEMALA CITY (capital) 1.075 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.3 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 120 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 24.32 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.46 years
male: 69.56 years
female: 73.45 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 43.3% (2002)
Health expenditures: 6.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.9 physicians/1,000 population (1999)
Hospital bed density: 0.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 92% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 8% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 70% of population
total: 88% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 30% of population
total: 22% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 62,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,600 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.2% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13% (2009)
Education expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 75.9%
male: 81.2%
female: 71.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.1% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
Government type: constitutional democratic republic
Capital: name: Guatemala City
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended 25 May 1993; reinstated 5 June 1993; amended November 1993
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces and police may not vote by law and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch: chief of state: President Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA (since 14 January 2012); Vice President Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias (since 14 January 2012); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA (since 14 January 2012); Vice President Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias (since 14 January 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 11 September 2011; runoff held on 6 November 2011 (next to be held in September 2015)

election results: Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Otto Fernando PEREZ MOLINA 53.7%, Manuel BALDIZON 46.3%
Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members elected through a party list proportional representation system)

elections: last held on 11 September 2011 (next to be held in September 2015)

election results: percent of vote by party - PP 26.62%, UNE-GANA 22.67%, UNC 9.50%, LIDER 8.87%, CREO 8.67%, VIVA-EG 7.87%, Winaq-URNG-ANN 3.23%, PAN 3.12%, FRG 2.74%, PU 2.70%, other 3.59%; seats by party - PP 57, UNE-GANA 48, LIDER 14, UCN 14, CREO 12, VIVA-EG 6, PAN 2, Winaq-URNG-ANN 2, FRG 1, PU 1, Victoria 1; note - changes in party affiliation now reflect the following seat distribution: as of 15 April 2013 - PP 59, LIDER 36, TODOS 16, CREO 9, GANA 8, independents 7, UNE 7, EG 3, PU 3, UCN 3, FRG 2, PAN 1, URNG 1, Victoria 1, VIVA 1, Winaq 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 13 magistrates including the court president and organized into several chambers); note - the court president also supervises trial judges countrywide; Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitcionalidad (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates elected by the Congress of the Republic from candidates proposed by the Postulation Committee, an independent body of deans of the country's university law schools, representatives of the country's law associations, and representatives of the Court of Appeal and other tribunals; magistrates elected for renewable 5-year terms; Constitutional Court judges - 1 elected by the Congress of the Republic, 1 by the Supreme Court president, 1 by the president of the republic, 1 by the University of San Carlos, and one by the BAR association; judges elected for concurrent 5-year terms; the presidency of the court rotates among the magistrates for a single 1-year term

subordinate courts: numerous first instance and appellate courts
Political parties and leaders: Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Rodolfo NEUTZE] Democratic Union or UD [Edwin Armando MARTINEZ Herrera] Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO] Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Jorge Mario BARRIOS Falla] Grand National Alliance or GANA [Jaime Antonio MARTINEZ Lohayza] Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector Alfredo NUILA Ericastilla] Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Luis Fernando PEREZ] National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ] National Unity for Hope or UNE National Welfare or Bien [Sandra TORRES] Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA] New National Alternative or ANN [Pablo MONSANTO] Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias] Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON] Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen] Victoria (Victory) [Abraham RIVERA] Vision with Values or VIVA [Manuel Alfredo VILLACORTA Miron] (part of a coalition with EG during the last legislative election) Winaq [Rigoberta MENCHU]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance Against Impunity or AI (which includes among others Center for Legal Action on Human Rights (CALDH), and Family and Friends of the Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA)) Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF (which includes among others the Agrarian Chamber (CAMAGRO) and the Industry Chamber of Guatemala (CIG)) Guatemalan Chamber of Commerce (Camara de Comercio) International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala or CICIG Mutual Support Group or GAM Movimiento PRO-Justicia
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): quetzal (bird)
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Guatemala" (National Anthem of Guatemala)
lyrics/music: Jose Joaquin PALMA/Rafael Alvarez OVALLE

note: adopted 1897, modified lyrics adopted 1934; Cuban poet Jose Joaquin PALMA anonymously submitted lyrics to a public contest calling for a national anthem; his authorship was not discovered until 1911
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco VILLAGRAN de Leon
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Houston, McAllen (TX), Miami, New York, Phoenix, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arnold A. CHACON
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: DPO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
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 Economy
Guatemala is the most populous country in Central America with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of the average for Latin America and the Caribbean. The agricultural sector accounts for 13% of GDP and 38% of the labor force; key agricultural exports include coffee, sugar, bananas, and vegetables. The 1996 peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and since then Guatemala has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. The Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) entered into force in July 2006 spurring increased investment and diversification of exports, with the largest increases in ethanol and non-traditional agricultural exports. While CAFTA-DR has helped improve the investment climate, concerns over security, the lack of skilled workers and poor infrastructure continue to hamper foreign direct investment. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with the richest 20% of the population accounting for more than 51% of Guatemala's overall consumption. More than half of the population is below the national poverty line and 13% of the population lives in extreme poverty. Poverty among indigenous groups, which make up 38% of the population, averages 73% and extreme poverty rises to 28%. Nearly one-half of Guatemala's children under age five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world. Given Guatemala''s large expatriate community in the United States, it is the top remittance recipient in Central America, with inflows serving as a primary source of foreign income equivalent to nearly two-fifths of exports or one-tenth of GDP. Economic growth fell in 2009 as export demand from US and other Central American markets dropped and foreign investment slowed amid the global recession. The economy gradually recovered in 2010-12.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $79.97 billion (2012 est.) $77.64 billion (2011 est.) $74.55 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $49.88 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2012 est.) 4.1% (2011 est.) 2.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,300 (2012 est.) $5,300 (2011 est.) $5,200 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 10.7%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.9%
imports of goods and services: -35.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 85.7%
government consumption: 10.7%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.9%
imports of goods and services: -35.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.359 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 38%
industry: 14%
services: 48% (2011 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.1% (2011 est.) 3.5% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 54% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 55.1 (2007) 55.8 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $5.856 billion
expenditures: $7.062 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 11.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 29.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 28.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2012 est.) 6.2% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.039 billion (2012 est.) -$1.523 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $10.09 billion (2012 est.) $10.52 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom
Exports - partners: US 39.2%, El Salvador 11.4%, Honduras 6.8%, Mexico 5.4%, Nicaragua 4% (2012)
Imports: $15.84 billion (2012 est.) $15.48 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity, mineral products, chemical products, plastic materials and products
Imports - partners: US 38.4%, Mexico 11.9%, China 8.3%, El Salvador 5.1%, Colombia 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $6.694 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.184 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $16.79 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $16.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: quetzales (GTQ) per US dollar - 7.8336 (2012 est.) 7.7854 (2011 est.) 8.0578 (2010 est.) 8.1616 (2009) 7.5895 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 8.146 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 98
Electricity - consumption: 8.161 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 193.3 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 525.6 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.673 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 58.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 29.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 12.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 10,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 12,620 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 83.07 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1,132 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 80,810 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 4,162 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 68,910 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 12.97 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.626 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 65
Cellular Phones in use: 20.716 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala

domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opening the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity roughly 10 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 150 per 100 persons

international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 4 privately owned national terrestrial TV channels dominate TV broadcasting; multi-channel satellite and cable services are available; 1 government-owned radio station and hundreds of privately owned radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .gt
Internet hosts: 357,552 (2012)
Internet users: 2.279 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 291 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 23
Airports (paved runways): total 16

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 275

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 77
under 914 m: 195 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 480 km (2013)
Railways: total 332 km

narrow gauge: 332 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 11,501 km
paved: 6,797 km (includes 127 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,704 km (2010)
Waterways: 990 km (260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season) (2012)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
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 Military
Military branches: National Army of Guatemala (Ejercito Nacional de Guatemala, ENG; includes Guatemalan Navy (Fuerza de Mar, including Marines), Guatemalan Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Guatemalteca, FAG)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are liable for military service; in practice, a selective draft system is employed, with only a small portion of 17-21 year-olds conscripted; conscript service obligation varies from 1 to 2 years; women can serve as officers (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,165,870
females age 16-49: 3,371,217 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,590,843
females age 16-49: 2,926,544 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 171,092
female: 168,151 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.4% of GDP (2009)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: annual ministerial meetings under the Organization of American States-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; Guatemala persists in its territorial claim to half of Belize, but agrees to Line of Adjacency to keep Guatemalan squatters out of Belize's forested interior; both countries agreed in April 2012 to hold simultaneous referenda, scheduled for 6 October 2013, to decide whether to refer the dispute to the ICJ for binding resolution; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: undetermined (more than three decades of internal conflict that ended in 1996 displaced mainly the indigenous Maya population and rural peasants; ongoing drug cartel and gang violence) (2011)
Illicit drugs: major transit country for cocaine and heroin; in 2005, cultivated 100 hectares of opium poppy after reemerging as a potential source of opium in 2004; potential production of less than 1 metric ton of pure heroin; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem
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